Research on the impact of moods on tasks that involve considerable cognitive demands suggests that:
positive moods result in better performance.
negative moods result in better performance.
a person’s mood doesn’t really make a difference on his or her tasks.
there is a curvilinear relationship between mood and tasks requiring high cognitive demands.
In the rational model, the decision maker strives to:
select the alternative agreeable to the majority.
apply a heuristic.
An organization should practice or provide all of the following except ________ if it wants to encourage employee creativity.
participative decision making
flexible organizational structure
The model of bounded rationality was first proposed by ________.
algorithms based on complex decision making.
complex decision rules used in complex situations.
shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity.
mathematical approaches to decision making.
A group decision technique that facilitates expert input by using a panel of experts is ________.
the nominal group technique
the Delphi technique
Which of the following is a characteristic of quality teams?
They provide advice to managers who still retain decision-making authority.
They operate in parallel fashion to an organization’s structure.
They emphasize the generation of ideas.
They make data-based decisions about improving products.
According to research, which of the following decision-making models portrays the managerial decision process more realistically?
The rational model
The garbage can model
The bounded rationality model
The incremental model
In the context of types of creativity, which of the following is NOT a type of creativity?
The rational model of decision making assumes:
preferences of the decision maker are inconsistent.
that all possible alternatives can’t be known to decision makers.
that outcomes can’t be optimized.
that the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives.
The fourth step in the Z model of problem solving is:
objective analysis of alternatives.
Continuing to support a failing course of action is known as:
the theory of sunk costs.
the Z problem solving model.
conflicted reason theory.
escalation of commitment.
All of the following are characteristics of a nonprogrammed decision situation except:
The final step in the decision-making process is:
feedback and monitoring.
selecting a course of action.
A key organizational requirement for participation in decision making includes:
a workforce consisting of individuals with low self-esteem.
a supportive organizational culture.
people with individual motivation.
________ is power that is based on an agent’s ability to cause the target to have an unpleasant experience.
Empowerment can be thought about as being related to the job dimensions of:
content and variety.
autonomy and variety.
context and autonomy.
content and context.
The range in which attempts to influence the employee are perceived as legitimate and are acted on without a great deal of thought is known as:
the principal/agent range.
the zone of indifference.
According to Kanter’s perspective on power, which of the following is a symbol of powerlessness?
Making external attributions
Exceeding budget limitations
Loose supervision of subordinates
Delegating jobs and tasks
McClelland has found that managers who use power successfully have four power-oriented characteristics. Which of the following is one of these characteristics?
Belief in delegation of authority
Preference for work and discipline
Putting personal needs before the company
Ability to get placements for favored employees
________ refers to actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one’s personal goals.
McClelland’s two faces of power include:
coercive and rewarding powers.
legitimate and illegitimate powers.
personal and social powers.
interpersonal and intrapersonal powers.
Korda’s symbols of power focus on:
the ability to help others.
access to information.
Which of the following types of power would a Machiavellian manager rely on?
In the context of the employee empowerment grid, ________ represents a situation that is typical of autonomous work groups that have some decision-making power over both job content and job context.
Enlarging an individual’s zone of indifference is best accomplished through:
In the context of the four dimensions of empowerment, ________ is the belief that one’s job makes a difference within the organization.
Which of the following sets of dimensions comprises the essence of empowerment?
Teamwork, delegation, trust, and autonomy
Meaning, teamwork, competence, and trust
Delegation, trust, competence, and autonomy
Meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact
All of the following are considered a key dimension for being politically skillful except:
Which of the following personality characteristics is central to empowerment?
Locus of control