Ageism and adultism identifies the issue of the oppression and marginalization of a group based on their age—be it youth or elders. Society assigns expected behaviors founded on historical views on how one should act and present themselves on the basis of their age.
As you read this week’s chapters, consider your own personal views of ageing and the steps you might take to make yourself look younger. Further, reflect on how the fascination with looking younger in our society is related to ageism and how society views the elderly.
This week, you will analyze the influence of ageism in the case studies. In addition, you submit your presentation on a cultural event you attended in your community.
Adams, M., Blumenfeld, W. J., Castaneda, C., Catalano, D. C. J., DeJong, K., Hackman, H. W,… Zuniga, X. (Eds.). (2018). Readings for diversity and social justice (4th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge Press.
Chapter 116, (pp. 553-559)
Chapter 118, (pp. 565-567)
Chapter 120, (pp. 572-574)
Chapter 124, (pp. 583)
Chapter 127, (pp. 590-592)
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Sessions: Case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
“The Parker Family”
“The Logan Family”
Laureate Education (Producer). (2013). Parker Family (Episode 30) [Video file]. In Sessions. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 4 minutes.
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Laureate Education (Producer). (2013). Logan Family (Episode 34) [Video file]. In Sessions. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 2 minutes.
Accessible player –Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload Transcript
Discussion: Impact of Ageism and Adultism
Adultism refers to the oppression of young people by adults. The popular saying “children should be seen and not heard” is used as a way to remind a child of his or her place and reaffirm the adult’s power in the relationship. The saying suggests that children’s voices are not as important or as valid as an adult’s and they should remain quiet. Children are often relegated to subordinate positions due to socially constructed beliefs about what they can or cannot accomplish or what they should or should not do; this in turn compromises youth’s self-determination. This oppression is further highlighted when considering the intersection of age with race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientation. You will be asked to consider all of these when reviewing the Logan case and Parker case.
By Day 3
Post an analysis of the influence of adultism in the Logan case. Then, explain how gender, race, class, and privilege interact with adultism to influence the family’s discourse related to Eboni’s pregnancy as well as other family dynamics.
Respond to at least two colleagues with a comparison of how adultism and ageism affects the Logan and Parker families. In your comparison, draw specifically on your colleagues’ analysis with any further details that support or critique your colleagues’ posts. Also, be sure to provide specific examples related to both the Logan and Parker families.
The Logan Family
Eboni Logan is a 16-year-old biracial African American/Caucasian female in 11th grade. She is an honors student, has been taking Advanced Placement courses, and runs track. Eboni plans to go to college and major in nursing. She is also active in choir and is a member of the National Honor Society and the student council. For the last 6 months, Eboni has been working 10 hours a week at a fast food restaurant. She recently passed her driver’s test and has received her license.
Eboni states that she believes in God, but she and her mother do not belong to any organized religion. Her father attends a Catholic church regularly and takes Eboni with him on the weekends that she visits him.
Eboni does not smoke and denies any regular alcohol or drug usage. She does admit to occasionally drinking when she is at parties with her friends, but denies ever being drunk. There is no criminal history. She has had no major health problems.
Eboni has been dating Darian for the past 4 months. He is a 17-year-old African American male. According to Eboni, Darian is also on the track team and does well in school. He is a B student and would like to go to college, possibly for something computer related. Darian works at a grocery store 10–15 hours a week. He is healthy and has no criminal issues. Darian also denies smoking or regular alcohol or drug usage. He has been drunk a few times, but Eboni reports that he does not think it is a problem. Eboni and Darian became sexually active soon after they started dating, and they were using withdrawal for birth control.
Eboni’s mother, Darlene, is 34 years old and also biracial African American/Caucasian. She works as an administrative assistant for a local manufacturing company. Eboni has lived with her mother and her maternal grandmother, May, from the time she was born. May is a 55-year-old African American woman who works as a paraprofessional in an elementary school. They still live in the same apartment where May raised Darlene.
Darlene met Eboni’s father, Anthony, when she was 17, the summer before their senior year in high school. Anthony is 34 years old and Caucasian. They casually dated for about a month, and after they broke up, Darlene discovered she was pregnant and opted to keep the baby. Although they never married each other, Anthony has been married twice and divorced once. He has four other children in addition to Eboni. She visits her father and stepmother every other weekend. Anthony works as a mechanic and pays child support to Darlene.
Recently, Eboni took a pregnancy test and learned that she is 2 months pregnant. She actually did not know she was pregnant because her periods were not always consistent and she thought she had just skipped a couple of months. Eboni immediately told her best friend, Brandy, and then Darian about her pregnancy. He was shocked at first and suggested that it might be best to terminate. Darian has not told her explicitly to get an abortion, but he feels he cannot provide for her and the baby as he would like and thinks they should wait to have children. He eventually told her he would support her in any way he could, whatever she decides. Brandy encouraged Eboni to meet with the school social worker.
During our first meeting, Eboni told me that she had taken a pregnancy test the previous week and it was positive. At that moment, the only people who knew she was pregnant were her best friend and boyfriend. She had not told her parents and was not sure how to tell them. She was very scared about what they would say to her. We talked about how she could tell them and discussed various responses she might receive. Eboni agreed she would tell her parents over the weekend and see me the following Monday. During our meeting I asked her if she used contraception, and she told me that she used the withdrawal method.
Eboni met with me that following Monday, as planned, and she was very tearful. She had told her parents and grandmother over the weekend. Eboni shared that her mother and grandmother had become visibly upset when they learned of the pregnancy, and Darlene had yelled and called her a slut. Darlene told Eboni she wanted her to have a different life than she had had and told her she should have an abortion. May cried and held Eboni in her arms for a long time. When Eboni told her father, he was shocked and just kept shaking his head back and forth, not saying a word. Then he told her that she had to have this child because abortion was a sin. He offered to help her and suggested that she move in with him and her stepmother.
Darlene did not speak to Eboni for the rest of the weekend. Her grandmother said she was scheduling an appointment with the doctor to make sure she really was pregnant. Eboni was apprehensive about going to the doctor, so we discussed what the first appointment usually entails. I approached the topic of choices and decisions if it was confirmed that she was pregnant, and she said she had no idea what she would do.
Two days later, Eboni came to see me with the results of her doctor’s appointment. The doctor confirmed the pregnancy, said her hormone levels were good, and placed her on prenatal vitamins. Eboni had had little morning sickness and no overt issues due to the pregnancy. Her grandmother went with her to the appointment, but her mother was still not speaking to her. Eboni was very upset about the situation with her mother. At one point she commented that parents are supposed to support their kids when they are in trouble and that she would never treat her daughter the way her mother was treating her. I offered to meet with Eboni and her mother to discuss the situation. Although apprehensive, Eboni gave me permission to call her mother and set up an appointment.
The Logan Family
May Logan: mother of Darlene, 55
Darlene Logan: mother, 34
Anthony Jennings: father, 34
Eboni Logan: daughter, 16
Darian: Eboni’s boyfriend, 17
I left a message for Darlene to contact me about scheduling a meeting. She called back and agreed to meet with Eboni and me. When I informed Eboni of the scheduled meeting, she thanked me. She told me that she was going to spend the upcoming weekend with her father, and that she was apprehensive about how it would go. When I approached the topic of a decision about the pregnancy, she stated that she was not certain but was leaning in one direction, which she did not share with me. I suggested we get together before the meeting with her mother to discuss the weekend with her father.
At our next session, Eboni said she thought she knew what to do but after spending the weekend with her father was still confused. Eboni said her father went on at length about how God gives life, and that if she had an abortion, she would go to hell. Eboni was very scared. Anthony had taken her to church and told the priest that Eboni was pregnant and asked him to pray for her. Eboni said this made her feel uncomfortable.
When I met with Eboni and her mother, Darlene shared her thoughts about Eboni’s pregnancy and her belief that she should have an abortion. She said she knows how hard it is to be a single mother and does not want this for Eboni. She believes that because Eboni is so young, she should do as she says. Eboni was very quiet during the session, and when asked what she thought, said she did not know. At the end of the session, nothing was resolved between Eboni and her mother.
When I met with Eboni the next day to process the session, she said that when they got home, she and her mother talked without any yelling. Her mother told Eboni she loved her and wanted what was best for her. May said she would support Eboni no matter what she decided and would help her if she kept the baby.
Eboni was concerned because she thought she was beginning to look pregnant and her morning sickness had gotten worse. I addressed her overall health, and she said that she wanted to sleep all the time, and that when she was not nauseated, all she did was eat. Eboni is taking her prenatal vitamins in case she decides to have the baby. Only a couple of her friends know about the pregnancy, and they had different thoughts on what they thought she should do. One friend even bought her a onesie. In addition, Eboni was concerned that her grades were being affected by the situation, possibly affecting her ability to attend college. She was also worried about how a pregnancy or baby would affect her chances of getting a track scholarship. In response to her many concerns, I educated her on stress-reduction methods.
Eboni asked me what I thought she should do, and I told her it was her decision to make for herself and that she should not let others tell her what to do. However, I also stated that it was important for her to know all the options. We discussed at length what it would mean for her to keep the baby versus terminating the pregnancy. I mentioned adoption and the possibility of an open adoption, but Eboni said she was not sure she could have a baby and then give it away. We discussed the pros and cons of adoption, and she stated she was even more confused. I reminded her that she did not have much time to make her decision if she was going to terminate. She said she wanted a few days to really consider all her options.
Eboni scheduled a time to meet with me. When she entered my office, she told me she had had a long talk with her mother and grandmother the night before about what she was going to do. She had also called her father and Darian and told them what she had decided. Eboni told me she knows she has made the right decision.
Assignment: Power Point– Diversity Awareness & Self Reflection
In the profession of social work, there is an expectation that all service providers and professionals provide culturally responsive interventions and considerations to diverse individuals, groups, and communities. At the same time, the topic of diversity has the potential to create discomfort. How do social workers continue to not only engage in difficult conversations, but to also acknowledge and confront the layers of discomfort?
Learning about local diversity and attending cultural events is one way to challenge one’s perspective and engage with diverse others. For this Assignment, participate in an immersive experience in your community. As a guest at this experience, remember to take a stance of cultural humility and respectfully participate. You then create a PowerPoint (PPT) presentation about this experience in which you analyze related concepts in the course. You are expected to demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior, dress, and setting for the presentation.
To Prepare: Attend an open event in your community related to a diverse social identity (gender identity/expression, race/ethnicity, class, religion, ability, sexual orientation, national origin, or age). Then, create a PPT presentation.
Submit, a 7-10 minute recorded PowerPoint presentation and transcript of presentation. In the PPT presentation, address the following prompts:
- Describe the cultural event in which you participated.
- Explain how this experience influenced your perceptions of diversity and difference.
- Analyze at least 3 key concepts from this course in relation to this experience.
- Define what it means to you to engage with diversity and difference in practice.
- Describe two challenges associated with discussing and reflecting on diversity related content.
- Describe one strategy to address these challenges.
- Identify one positive emotion and one negative emotion that surfaced during the past 10 weeks of the course.
- Describe one strategy to address the negative emotion in order to continue developing cultural awareness.
- Explain specific steps that you will take to advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice based on what you have learned in this course.
It is highly recommended that you write a script before recording your presentation. A good guide for translating the length of your written script into presentation time is about 135 words per minute. This rate may differ based on your speaking style and other variables, so consider it a general guideline.
The Parker Family
Sara is a 72-year-old widowed Caucasian female who lives in a two-bedroom apartment with her 48-year-old daughter, Stephanie, and six cats. Sara and her daughter have lived together for the past 10 years, since Stephanie returned home after a failed relationship and was unable to live independently. Stephanie has a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and her overall physical health is good. Stephanie has no history of treatment for alcohol or substance abuse; during her teens she drank and smoked marijuana but no longer uses these substances. When she was 16 years old, Stephanie was hospitalized after her first bipolar episode. She had attempted suicide by swallowing a handful of Tylenol® and drinking half a bottle of vodka after her first boyfriend broke up with her. She has been hospitalized three times in the past 4 years when she stopped taking her medications and experienced suicidal ideation. Stephanie’s current medications are Lithium, Paxil®, Abilify®, and Klonopin®.
Stephanie recently had a brief hospitalization as a result of depressive symptoms. She attends a mental health drop-in center twice a week to socialize with friends and receives outpatient psychiatric treatment at a local mental health clinic for medication management and weekly therapy. She is maintaining a part-time job at a local supermarket where she bags groceries and is currently being trained to become a cashier. Stephanie currently has active Medicare and receives Social Security Disability (SSD).
Sara has recently been hospitalized for depression and has some physical issues. She has documented high blood pressure and hyperthyroidism, she is slightly underweight, and she is displaying signs of dementia. Sara has no history of alcohol or substance abuse. Her current medications are Lexapro® and Zyprexa®. Sara has Medicare and receives Social Security benefits and a small pension. She attends a day treatment program for seniors that is affiliated with a local hospital in her neighborhood. Sara attends the program 3 days a week from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., and van service is provided free of charge.
A telephone call was made to Adult Protective Services (APS) by the senior day treatment social worker when Sara presented with increased confusion, poor attention to daily living skills, and statements made about Stephanie’s behavior. Sara told the social worker at the senior day treatment program that, “My daughter is very argumentative and is throwing all of my things out.” She reported, “We are fighting like cats and dogs; I’m afraid of her and of losing all my stuff.”
During the home visit, the APS worker observed that the living room was very cluttered, but that the kitchen was fairly clean, with food in the refrigerator and cabinets. Despite the clutter, all of the doorways, including the front door, had clear egress. The family lives on the first floor of the apartment building and could exit the building without difficulty in case of emergency. The litter boxes were also fairly clean, and there was no sign of vermin in the home.
Upon questioning by the APS worker, Sara denied that she was afraid of her daughter or that her daughter had been physically abusive. In fact, the worker observed that Stephanie had a noticeable bruise on her forearm, which appeared defensive in nature. When asked about the bruise, Stephanie reported that she had gotten it when her mother tried to grab some items out of her arms that she was about to throw out. Stephanie admitted to throwing things out to clean up the apartment, telling the APS worker, “I’m tired of my mother’s hoarding.” Sara agreed with the description of the incident. Both Sara and Stephanie admitted to an increase in arguing, but denied physical violence. Sara stated, “I didn’t mean to hurt Stephanie. I was just trying to get my things back.”
The APS worker observed that Sara’s appearance was unkempt and disheveled, but her overall hygiene was adequate (i.e., clean hair and clothes). Stephanie was neatly groomed with good hygiene. The APS worker determined that no one was in immediate danger to warrant removal from the home but that the family was in need of a referral for Intensive Case Management (ICM) services. It was clear there was some conflict in the home that had led to physical confrontations. Further, the house had hygiene issues, including trash and items stacked in the living room and Sara’s room, which needed to be addressed. The APS worker indicated in her report that if not adequately addressed, the hoarding might continue to escalate and create an unsafe and unhygienic environment, thus leading to a possible eviction or recommendation for separation and relocation for both women.
As the ICM worker, I visited the family to assess the situation and the needs of the clients. Stephanie said she was very angry with her mother and sick of her compulsive shopping and hoarding. Stephanie complained that they did not have any visitors and she was ashamed to invite friends to the home due to the condition of the apartment. When I asked Sara if she saw a problem with so many items littering the apartment, Sara replied, “I need all of these things.” Stephanie complained that when she tried to clean up and throw things out, her mother went outside and brought it all back in again. We discussed the need to clean up the apartment and make it habitable for them to remain in their home, based on the recommendations of the APS worker. I also discussed possible housing alternatives, such as senior housing for Sara and a supportive apartment complex for Stephanie. Sara and Stephanie both stated they wanted to remain in their apartment together, although Stephanie questioned whether her mother would cooperate with cleaning up the apartment. Sara was adamant that she did not want to be removed from their apartment and would try to accept what needed to be done so they would not be forced to move.
The Parker Family
Sara Parker: mother, 72
Stephanie Parker: daughter, 48
Jane Rodgers: daughter, 45
Stephanie reported her mother is estranged from her younger sister, Jane, because of the hoarding. Stephanie also mentioned she was dissatisfied with her mother’s psychiatric treatment and felt she was not getting the help she needed. She reported that her mother was very anxious and was having difficulty sleeping, staying up until all hours of the night, and buying items from a televised shopping network. Sara’s psychiatrist had recently increased her Zyprexa prescription dosage to help reduce her agitation and possible bipolar disorder (as evidenced by the compulsive shopping), but Stephanie did not feel this had been helpful and actually wondered if it was contributing to her mother’s confusion. I asked for permission to contact Jane and both of their outpatient treatment teams, and both requests were granted.
I immediately contacted Jane, who initially was uncooperative and stated she was unwilling to assist. Jane is married, with three children, and lives 3 hours away. At the beginning of our phone call, Jane said, “I’ve been through this before and I’m not helping this time.” When I asked if I could at least keep in touch with her to keep her informed of the situation and any decisions that might need to be made, Jane agreed. After a few more minutes of discussion around my role and responsibilities, I was able to establish a bit of rapport with Jane. She then started to ask me questions and share some insight into what was going on in her mother and sister’s home.
Jane informed me that she was very angry with her mother and had not brought her children to the apartment in years because of its condition. She said that her mother started compulsively shopping and hoarding when she and Stephanie were in high school, and while her father had tried to contain it as best he could, the apartment was always cluttered. She said this had been a source of conflict and embarrassment for her and Stephanie all of their lives. She said that after her father died of a heart attack, the hoarding got worse, and neither she nor Stephanie could control it. Jane also told me she felt her mother was responsible for Stephanie’s relapses. Jane reported that Stephanie had been compliant with her medication and treatment in the past, and that up until a few years ago, had not been hospitalized for several years. Jane had told Stephanie in the past to move out.
Jane also told me that she “is angry with the mental health system.” Sara had been recently hospitalized for depression, and Jane took pictures of the apartment to show the inpatient treatment team what her mother was going home to. Jane felt they did not treat the situation seriously because they discharged her mother back to the apartment. Stephanie had been hospitalized at the same time as her mother, but in a different hospital, and Jane had shown the pictures to her sister’s treatment team as well. Initially the social worker recommended that Stephanie not return to the apartment because of the state of the home, but when that social worker was replaced with someone new, Stephanie was also sent back home.
When I inquired if there were any friends or family members who might be available and willing to assist in clearing out the apartment, Jane said her mother had few friends and was not affiliated with a church group or congregation. However, she acknowledged that there were two cousins who might help, and she offered to contact them and possibly help herself. She said that she would ask her husband to help as well, but she wanted assurance that her mother would cooperate. I explained that while I could not promise that her mother would cooperate completely, her mother had stated that she was willing to do whatever it took to keep living in her home. Jane seemed satisfied with this response and pleased with the plan.
I then arranged to meet with Sara and her psychiatrist to discuss her increased anxiety and confusion and the compulsive shopping. I requested a referral for neuropsychiatric testing to assess possible cognitive changes or decline in functioning. A test was scheduled, and it indicated some cognitive deficits, but at the end of testing, Sara told the psychologist who administered the tests she had stopped taking her medications for depression. It was determined Sara’s depression and discontinuation of medication could have affected her test performance and it was recommended she be retested in 6 months. I suggested a referral to a geriatric psychiatrist for Sara, as she appeared to need more specialized treatment. Sara’s psychologist was in agreement.
Because they had both stated that they did not want to be removed from their home, I worked with Sara and Stephanie as a team to address cleaning the apartment. All agreed that they would begin working together to clean the house for 1 hour a day until arrangements were made for additional help from family members. In an attempt to alleviate Sara’s anxiety around throwing out the items, I suggested using three bags for the initial cleanup: one bag was for items she could throw out, the second bag was for “maybes,” and the third was for “not ready yet.” I scheduled home visits at the designated cleanup time to provide support and encouragement and to intervene in disputes. I also contacted Sara’s treatment team to inform them of the cleanup plans and suggested that Sara might need additional support and observation as it progressed. Jane notified me that her two cousins were willing to assist with the cleanup, make minor repairs, and paint the apartment. Jane offered to schedule a date that would be convenient for her and her cousins to come and help out.
Key to Acronyms
APS: Adult Protective Services
ICM: Intensive Case Management services
SSD: Social Security Disability
We then discussed placement for at least some of the cats, because six seemed too many for a small apartment. Sara and Stephanie were at first adamant that they could not give up their cats, but with further discussion admitted it had become extremely difficult to manage caring for them all. They both eventually agreed to each keep their favorite cat and find homes for the other four. Sara and Stephanie made fliers and brought them to their respective treatment programs to hand out. Stephanie also brought fliers about the cats to her place of employment. Three of the four cats were adopted within a week.
During one home visit, Stephanie pulled me aside and said she had changed her mind—she did not want to continue to live with her mother. She requested that I complete a housing application for supportive housing stating, “I want to get on with my life.” Stephanie had successfully completed cashier training, and the manager of the supermarket was pleased with her performance and was prepared to hire her as a part-time cashier soon. She expressed concern about how her mother would react to this decision and asked me for assistance telling her.
We all met together to discuss Stephanie’s decision to apply for an apartment. Sara was initially upset and had some difficulty accepting this decision. Sara said she had fears about living alone, but when we discussed senior living alternatives, Sara was adamant she wanted to remain in her apartment. Sara said she had lived alone for a number of years after her husband died and felt she could adjust again. I offered to help her stay in her apartment and explore home care services and programs available that will meet her current needs to remain at home.
Adultism refers to the oppression of young people by adults. Influence of adultism in the Logan case is witnessed by the input of Eboni’s mother, father, and grandmother. Eboni finds herself 16 and pregnant, and when she disclosed this information to her parents and grandmother, the response displayed adultism. Eboni’s mother yelled at her and called her a slut, and her father told her that she must have the baby because it was a sin to get an abortion. Eboni’s mother informed her to get an abortion because she did not want her to have the same life and struggles that she experienced due to having a child at a young age. Eboni’s mother did not ask for input initially and just told her what is best for her. Eboni’s opinion or feelings had no meaning to her mother at this point. This is an example of Adultism, when children’s voices are not viewed as important.
Race interacts with adultism in this case as Eboni identifies as a biracial African American/Caucasian female who is 16 and pregnant. She worries that she will now have even more limited opportunities due to the pregnancy. Gender interacts with Adultism as Eboni’s mother was more angry and upset than Eboni’s father because her mother was a young mom and personally knew the struggles and barriers that Eboni may experience as well. Class and Privilege interacts with adultism as if an individual has more resources, money, or is a part of an aspect of what society views as privileged, then maybe Eboni’s parents would have a different reaction due to the situation not being as difficult if say more money were available to them. The family dynamics displayed after the initial shock of the news, is loving and supportive. Eboni’s mother lets her know that she just wants what is best for her and her grandmother offered her help and support as well. Her father offered for her to move in with he and his wife. This proves that Eboni does have a supportive environment within her family.
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Sessions: Case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital SoFlorence Ngenue
Adultism refers to the behaviors or altitude portrayed by adults on the assumption that adults are better than young people and can act for young people without their necessary concern (Adams, et. al., 2018). Adultism is exhibited in many instances in “The case of the Logon Family”. In this case, Eboni is a biracial 16-year-old female honor roll student, who is active in church and has a part-time job. She has prospects of pursuing a degree in nursing after graduation. Eboni finds out that she is pregnant and does not know how to handle her dilemma (Plummer & Brocksen, 2014). She resorts to seek for help from a social worker and being from a multicultural background she is face with different opinions from her parents on how to handle the situation. Eboni’s situation exhibits adultism. Firstly, the social worker’s statement to Eboni “didn’t you use protection” (Laureate, 2013) was judgement mental and disrespectful. This is a typical question adult ask young people which portrays their control over them. Also, Darlene (Eboni’s mother) yelling, calling Eboni a slut, stopping communication with Eboni and insisting that Eboni goes for an abortion not giving her a chance to make her own decision on what she wants to do with the pregnancy is another form of adultism. Lastly, Eboni’s father also exhibited adultism by bringing in his religion and trying to use it to persuade Eboni not to have an abortion (Plummer & Brocksen, 2014) .
Looking at gender, race, class and privilege in relation to adultism, for example what is considered “weak” in one gender, may be ‘strong’ in another and what is accepted in one culture may not be accepted in another culture (Adams, et. al., 2018). Eboni being an adolescent female is looked upon by her parents and other adults as a young and cannot make decisions of her own. Thus, they will have to make decisions for her. Also, being biracial with parents from different religious beliefs and privileges, Eboni had to self-identify, deciding what she wanted and belief in. Lastly, being an African-American female Eboni is looked upon as weak and less privileged and cannot take decisions on her own but will need the help of her parents and other adults.